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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2015. This chapter provides an introduction to Bayesian models and their application in cognitive neuroscience. The central feature of Bayesian models, as opposedto other classes of models, is that Bayesian models represent the beliefs of an observer as probability distributions, allowing them to integrate information while taking its uncertainty into account. In the chapter, we will consider howthe probabilistic natureof Bayesian models makes them particularly useful in cognitive neuroscience. We will consider two types of tasks in which we believe a Bayesian approach is useful: optimal integration of evidence from different sources, and the development of beliefs about the environment given limited information (such as during learning).We will develop some detailed examples of Bayesian models to give the reader a tasteof how the models are constructed and what insights they may be able to offer about participants’ behavior and brain activity.

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179 - 197