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BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammatory cytokines can play a pivotal role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) contributing to the evolution of degenerative processes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at evaluating the levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in subjects with diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild AD. METHODS: We evaluated CSF contents of inflammatory cytokines in 66 patients divided according to the NIA-AA research framework and the APOE genotype. CSF of a group of cognitively unimpaired individuals (n = 23) was evaluated as control. All patients were evaluated for 24 months using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). RESULTS: We found significant increased levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and G-CSF in the CSF of A+/T-APOE4 carriers, respect to A+/T-patients homozygous for APOE3, respect to A+/T+ patients, regardless the APOE status, and respect to controls. Over a period of 24 months, A+/T-APOE4 carriers, with increased levels of cytokines, showed a preserved cognitive evaluation when compared to the other subgroups of patients (delta MMSE at 24 months respect to baseline: 0.10±0.35; p 

Original publication




Journal article


J Alzheimers Dis

Publication Date





681 - 689


APOE, Amyloid-β 42, G-CSF, cognitive decline, interleukins, tau, Aged, Alzheimer Disease, Apolipoprotein E4, Biomarkers, Cognitive Dysfunction, Cytokines, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Genotype, Humans, Inflammation Mediators, Male, Middle Aged