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PURPOSE: To extend and optimize a non-contrast MRI technique to obtain whole head 4D (time-resolved 3D) qualitative angiographic and perfusion images from a single scan. METHODS: 4D combined angiography and perfusion using radial imaging and arterial spin labeling (CAPRIA) uses pseudocontinuous labeling with a 3D golden ratio ("koosh ball") readout to continuously image the blood water as it travels through the arterial system and exchanges into the tissue. High spatial/temporal resolution angiograms and low spatial/temporal resolution perfusion images can be flexibly reconstructed from the same raw k-space data. Constant and variable flip angle (CFA and VFA, respectively) excitation schedules were optimized through simulations and tested in healthy volunteers. A conventional sensitivity encoding (SENSE) reconstruction was compared against a locally low rank (LLR) reconstruction, which leverages spatiotemporal correlations. Comparison was also made with time-matched time-of-flight angiography and multi-delay EPI perfusion images. Differences in image quality were assessed through split-scan repeatability. RESULTS: The optimized VFA schedule (2-9°) resulted in a significant (p 

Original publication




Journal article


Magn Reson Med

Publication Date



3D radial MRI, arterial spin labeling, dynamic angiography, non-contrast, perfusion imaging, simultaneous acquisition