Arterial spin labeling for the measurement of cerebral perfusion and angiography.
Jezzard P., Chappell MA., Okell TW.
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an MRI technique that was first proposed a quarter of a century ago. It offers the prospect of non-invasive quantitative measurement of cerebral perfusion, making it potentially very useful for research and clinical studies, particularly where multiple longitudinal measurements are required. However, it has suffered from a number of challenges, including a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio, and a confusing number of sequence variants, thus hindering its clinical uptake. Recently, however, there has been a consensus adoption of an accepted acquisition and analysis framework for ASL, and thus a better penetration onto clinical MRI scanners. Here, we review the basic concepts in ASL and describe the current state-of-the-art acquisition and analysis approaches, and the versatility of the method to perform both quantitative cerebral perfusion measurement, along with quantitative cerebral angiographic measurement.