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OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of organ impairment in long COVID patients at 6 and 12 months after initial symptoms and to explore links to clinical presentation. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals. METHODS: In individuals recovered from acute COVID-19, we assessed symptoms, health status, and multi-organ tissue characterisation and function. SETTING: Two non-acute healthcare settings (Oxford and London). Physiological and biochemical investigations were performed at baseline on all individuals, and those with organ impairment were reassessed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was prevalence of single- and multi-organ impairment at 6 and 12 months post COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 536 individuals (mean age 45 years, 73% female, 89% white, 32% healthcare workers, 13% acute COVID-19 hospitalisation) completed baseline assessment (median: 6 months post COVID-19); 331 (62%) with organ impairment or incidental findings had follow-up, with reduced symptom burden from baseline (median number of symptoms 10 and 3, at 6 and 12 months, respectively). Extreme breathlessness (38% and 30%), cognitive dysfunction (48% and 38%) and poor health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5L 

Original publication




Journal article


J R Soc Med

Publication Date





97 - 112


COVID-19, integrated care, long COVID, organ impairment, prevention, quality of life, Humans, Female, Middle Aged, Male, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome, Prospective Studies, Quality of Life, Longitudinal Studies