Velocity-selective arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI: A review of the state of the art and recommendations for clinical implementation.
Qin Q., Alsop DC., Bolar DS., Hernandez-Garcia L., Meakin J., Liu D., Nayak KS., Schmid S., van Osch MJP., Wong EC., Woods JG., Zaharchuk G., Zhao MY., Zun Z., Guo J., ISMRMPerfusion Study Group None.
This review article provides an overview of the current status of velocity-selective arterial spin labeling (VSASL) perfusion MRI and is part of a wider effort arising from the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM) Perfusion Study Group. Since publication of the 2015 consensus paper on arterial spin labeling (ASL) for cerebral perfusion imaging, important advancements have been made in the field. The ASL community has, therefore, decided to provide an extended perspective on various aspects of technical development and application. Because VSASL has the potential to become a principal ASL method because of its unique advantages over traditional approaches, an in-depth discussion was warranted. VSASL labels blood based on its velocity and creates a magnetic bolus immediately proximal to the microvasculature within the imaging volume. VSASL is, therefore, insensitive to transit delay effects, in contrast to spatially selective pulsed and (pseudo-) continuous ASL approaches. Recent technical developments have improved the robustness and the labeling efficiency of VSASL, making it a potentially more favorable ASL approach in a wide range of applications where transit delay effects are of concern. In this review article, we (1) describe the concepts and theoretical basis of VSASL; (2) describe different variants of VSASL and their implementation; (3) provide recommended parameters and practices for clinical adoption; (4) describe challenges in developing and implementing VSASL; and (5) describe its current applications. As VSASL continues to undergo rapid development, the focus of this review is to summarize the fundamental concepts of VSASL, describe existing VSASL techniques and applications, and provide recommendations to help the clinical community adopt VSASL.