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From a gym workout, to deciding whether to persevere at work, many activities require us to persist in deciding that rewards are 'worth the effort' even as we become fatigued. However, studies examining effort-based decisions typically assume that the willingness to work is static. Here, we use computational modelling on two effort-based tasks, one behavioural and one during fMRI. We show that two hidden states of fatigue fluctuate on a moment-to-moment basis on different timescales but both reduce the willingness to exert effort for reward. The value of one state increases after effort but is 'recoverable' by rests, whereas a second 'unrecoverable' state gradually increases with work. The BOLD response in separate medial and lateral frontal sub-regions covaried with these states when making effort-based decisions, while a distinct fronto-striatal system integrated fatigue with value. These results provide a computational framework for understanding the brain mechanisms of persistence and momentary fatigue.

Original publication




Journal article


Nat Commun

Publication Date





Adolescent, Adult, Brain, Choice Behavior, Decision Making, Fatigue, Female, Frontal Lobe, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Neural Networks, Computer, Reward, Ventral Striatum, Young Adult