Self-harm, suicidal ideation, and the positive symptoms of psychosis: Cross-sectional and prospective data from a national household survey.
de Cates AN., Catone G., Marwaha S., Bebbington P., Humpston CS., Broome MR.
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with premature mortality, partly through increased suicide rates. AIMS: To examine (1) if persecutory ideas, auditory hallucinations, and probable cases of psychosis are associated with suicidal thoughts or attempts cross-sectionally and prospectively, and (2) if such links are mediated by specific affective factors (depression, impulsivity, mood instability). METHOD: We analysed the 2000, 2007, and 2014 British Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys (APMS) separately. Measures of psychosis provided independent variables for multi-stage logistic regressions, with suicidal thoughts and attempts as dependent variables. We also conducted analyses to assess mediation by affective variables, and longitudinal analyses on a subset of the 2000 dataset. RESULTS: In every dataset, persecutory ideas, auditory hallucinations and probable psychosis were associated cross-sectionally with lifetime suicidal attempts and thoughts, even after controlling for confounders, with a single exception (persecutory ideation and suicide attempts were unconnected in APMS 2014). Cross-sectional associations between auditory hallucinations and suicidal phenomena were moderated by persecutory ideation. In the 2000 follow-up, initial persecutory ideas were associated with later suicidal thoughts (O.R. 1.77, p