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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are common neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) that may impact brain maturation. A number of studies have examined cortical gyrification morphology in both NDDs. Here we review and when possible pool their results to better understand the shared and potentially disorder-specific gyrification features. We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases, and 24 and 10 studies met the criteria to be included in the systematic review and meta-analysis portions, respectively. Meta-analysis of local Gyrification Index (lGI) findings across ASD studies was conducted with SDM software adapted for surface-based morphometry studies. Meta-regressions were used to explore effects of age, sex, and sample size on gyrification differences. There were no significant differences in gyrification across groups. Qualitative synthesis of remaining ASD studies highlighted heterogeneity in findings. Large-scale ADHD studies reported no differences in gyrification between cases and controls suggesting that, similar to ASD, there is currently no evidence of differences in gyrification morphology compared with controls. Larger, longitudinal studies are needed to further clarify the effects of age, sex, and IQ on cortical gyrification in these NDDs.

Original publication




Journal article


Cereb Cortex

Publication Date



attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, cortical gyrification, lGI, structural MRI