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Abstract Purpose To demonstrate that vessel-selectivity in arterial spin labeling angiography can be achieved without any scan time penalty or noticeable loss of image quality compared to conventional arterial spin labeling angiography. Methods Simulations on a numerical phantom were used to assess whether the increased sparsity of vessel-encoded angiograms compared to non-vessel-encoded angiograms alone can improve reconstruction results in a compressed sensing framework. Further simulations were performed to study whether the difference in relative sparsity between non-selective and vessel-selective dynamic angiograms were sufficient to achieve similar image quality at matched scan times in the presence of noise. Finally, data were acquired from 5 healthy volunteers to validate the technique in vivo. All data, both simulated and in vivo, were sampled in 2D using a golden angle radial trajectory and reconstructed by enforcing both image domain sparsity and temporal smoothness on the angiograms in a parallel imaging and compressed sensing framework. Results Relative sparsity was established as a primary factor governing the reconstruction fidelity. Using the proposed reconstruction scheme, differences between vessel-selective and non-selective angiography were negligible compared to the dominant factor of total scan time in both simulations and in vivo experiments at acceleration factors up to R = 34. The reconstruction quality was not heavily dependent on hand-tuning the parameters of the reconstruction. Conclusion The increase in relative sparsity of vessel-selective angiograms compared to non-selective angiograms can be leveraged to achieve higher acceleration without loss of image quality, resulting in the acquisition of vessel-selective information at no scan time cost.

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