The advantages of radial trajectories for vessel-selective dynamic angiography with arterial spin labeling.
Berry ESK., Jezzard P., Okell TW.
OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the advantages of radial k-space trajectories over conventional Cartesian approaches for accelerating the acquisition of vessel-selective arterial spin labeling (ASL) dynamic angiograms, which are conventionally time consuming to acquire. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vessel-encoded pseudocontinuous ASL was combined with time-resolved balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) and spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) readouts to obtain dynamic vessel-selective angiograms arising from the four main brain-feeding arteries. Dynamic 2D protocols with acquisition times of one minute or less were achieved through radial undersampling or a Cartesian parallel imaging approach. For whole-brain dynamic 3D imaging, magnetic field inhomogeneity and the high acceleration factors required rule out the use of bSSFP and Cartesian trajectories, so the feasibility of acquiring 3D radial SPGR angiograms was tested. RESULTS: The improved SNR efficiency of bSSFP over SPGR was confirmed for 2D dynamic imaging. Radial trajectories had considerable advantages over a Cartesian approach, including a factor of two improvements in the measured SNR (p < 0.00001, N = 6), improved distal vessel delineation and the lack of a need for calibration data. The 3D radial approach produced good quality angiograms with negligible artifacts despite the high acceleration factor (R = 13). CONCLUSION: Radial trajectories outperform conventional Cartesian techniques for accelerated vessel-selective ASL dynamic angiography.