Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Measuring brain activity in infants provides an objective surrogate approach with which to infer pain perception following noxious events. Here we discuss different approaches which can be used to measure noxious-evoked brain activity, and discuss how these measures can be used to assess the analgesic efficacy of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. We review factors that can modulate noxious-evoked brain activity, which may impact infant pain experience, including gestational age, sex, prior pain, stress, and illness.

Original publication




Journal article


Semin Fetal Neonatal Med

Publication Date



Analgesia, Clinical trials, Development, Electroencephalography, Electromyography, Evoked potentials, Facial expressions, Magnetic resonance imaging, Near-infrared spectroscopy, Neonate, Neuroimaging, Nociception, Pain measurement