The ultimate goal of calibrated fMRI is the quantitative imaging of oxygen metabolism (CMRO2), and this has been the focus of numerous methods and approaches. However, one underappreciated aspect of this quest is that in the drive to measure CMRO2, many other physiological parameters of interest are often acquired along the way. This can significantly increase the value of the dataset, providing greater information that is clinically relevant, or detail that can disambiguate the cause of signal variations. This can also be somewhat of a double-edged sword: calibrated fMRI experiments combine multiple parameters into a physiological model that requires multiple steps, thereby providing more opportunity for error propagation and increasing the noise and error of the final derived values. As with all measurements, there is a trade-off between imaging time, spatial resolution, coverage, and accuracy. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the benefits and pitfalls of extracting multiparametric measurements of cerebral physiology through calibrated fMRI experiments.
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