PURPOSE: Both dynamic magnetic resonance angiography (4D-MRA) and perfusion imaging can be acquired by using arterial spin labeling (ASL). While 4D-MRA highlights large vessel pathology, such as stenosis or collateral blood flow patterns, perfusion imaging provides information on the microvascular status. Therefore, a complete picture of the cerebral hemodynamic condition could be obtained by combining the two techniques. Here, we propose a novel technique for simultaneous acquisition of 4D-MRA and perfusion imaging using time-encoded pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling. METHODS: The time-encoded pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling module consisted of a first subbolus that was optimized for perfusion imaging by using a labeling duration of 1800 ms, whereas the other six subboli of 130 ms were used for encoding the passage of the labeled spins through the arterial system for 4D-MRA acquisition. After the entire labeling module, a multishot 3D turbo-field echo-planar-imaging readout was executed for the 4D-MRA acquisition, immediately followed by a single-shot, multislice echo-planar-imaging readout for perfusion imaging. The optimal excitation flip angle for the 3D turbo-field echo-planar-imaging readout was investigated by evaluating the image quality of the 4D-MRA and perfusion images as well as the accuracy of the estimated cerebral blood flow values. RESULTS: When using 36 excitation radiofrequency pulses with flip angles of 5 or 7.5°, the saturation effects of the 3D turbo-field echo-planar-imaging readout on the perfusion images were relatively moderate and after correction, there were no statistically significant differences between the obtained cerebral blood flow values and those from traditional time-encoded pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that simultaneous acquisition of 4D-MRA and perfusion images can be achieved by using time-encoded pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling. Magn Reson Med 79:2676-2684, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Magn Reson Med
2676 - 2684
4D-MRA, perfusion image, time-encoded pCASL, Adult, Brain, Cerebrovascular Circulation, Female, Humans, Imaging, Three-Dimensional, Magnetic Resonance Angiography, Male, Middle Aged, Perfusion Imaging, Young Adult