Gradient and shim pre-emphasis by inversion of a linear time-invariant system model.
Vannesjo SJ., Duerst Y., Vionnet L., Dietrich BE., Pavan M., Gross S., Barmet C., Pruessmann KP.
PURPOSE: The goal of this contribution is to enhance the fidelity and switching speed of gradient and shim fields by advancing pre-emphasis toward broadband and full cross-term correction. THEORY AND METHODS: The proposed approach is based on viewing gradient and shim chains as linear, time-invariant (LTI) systems. Pre-emphasis is accomplished by inversion of a broadband digital system model. In the multiple-channel case, it amounts to a matrix of broadband filters that perform concerted self- and cross-term correction. This approach is demonstrated with gradients and shims up to the third order in a 7 Tesla whole-body MR system. RESULTS: Pre-emphasis by LTI model inversion is first verified by studying settling speeds and response behavior without and with the correction. It is then demonstrated for rapid shim updating, achieving substantially enhanced fidelity of field dynamics and shim settling within approximately 1 ms. In single-shot echo-planar imaging (EPI) acquisitions in vivo, this benefit is shown to translate into enhanced geometric fidelity. CONCLUSIONS: The fidelity of gradient and shim dynamics can be greatly enhanced by pre-emphasis based on inverting a general LTI system model. Permitting shim settling on the millisecond scale, broadband multiple-channel pre-emphasis promises to render higher-order shimming fully versatile at the level of MRI sequence design. Magn Reson Med 78:1607-1622, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.