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OBJECTIVE: The study compared two channel-reduction approaches in order to investigate the effects of systematic motor imagery (MI) neurofeedback practice in an everyday environment using a very user-friendly EEG system consisting of individualized caps and highly portable hardware. METHODS: Sixteen BCI novices were trained over four consecutive days to imagine left and right hand movements while receiving feedback. The most informative bipolar channels for use on the subsequent days were identified on the first day for each individual based on a high-density online MI recording. RESULTS: Online classification accuracy on the first day was 85.1% on average (range: 64.7-97.7%). Offline an individually-selected bipolar channel pair based on common spatial patterns significantly outperformed a pair informed by independent component analysis and a standard 10-20 pair. From day 2 to day 4 online MI accuracy increased significantly (day 2: 69.1%; day 4: 73.3%), which was mostly caused by a reduction in ipsilateral event-related desynchronization of sensorimotor rhythms. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that systematic MI practice in an everyday environment with a user-friendly EEG system results in MI learning effects. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings help to bridge the gap between elaborate laboratory studies with healthy participants and efficient home or hospital based MI neurofeedback protocols.

Original publication




Journal article


Clin Neurophysiol

Publication Date





698 - 710


Brain–computer interface, Electrode reduction, Mobile EEG, Motor imagery, Adolescent, Adult, Electroencephalography, Female, Humans, Imagination, Learning, Male, Movement, Photic Stimulation, Psychomotor Performance, User-Computer Interface, Young Adult