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Accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) is linked to decline in renal function, particularly in patients with diabetes. Major forms of AGEs in serum are protein-bound AGEs and AGE free adducts. In this study, we assessed levels of AGEs in subjects with and without diabetes, with normal renal function and stages 2 to 4 chronic kidney disease (CKD), to identify which AGE has the greatest progressive change with decline in renal function and change in diabetes. We performed a cross-sectional study of patients with stages 2–4 CKD, with and without diabetes, and healthy controls (n = 135). Nine protein-bound and free adduct AGEs were quantified in serum. Most protein-bound AGEs increased moderately through stages 2–4 CKD whereas AGE free adducts increased markedly. Methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone MG-H1 free adduct was the AGE most responsive to CKD status, increasing 8-fold and 30-fold in stage 4 CKD in patients without and with diabetes, respectively. MG-H1 Glomerular filtration flux was increased 5-fold in diabetes, likely reflecting increased methylglyoxal glycation status. We conclude that serum MG-H1 free adduct concentration was strongly related to stage of CKD and increased in diabetes status. Serum MG-H1 free adduct is a candidate AGE risk marker of non-diabetic and diabetic CKD.

Original publication




Journal article


International Journal of Molecular Sciences



Publication Date





152 - 152