Analysis of Serum Advanced Glycation Endproducts Reveals Methylglyoxal-Derived Advanced Glycation MG-H1 Free Adduct is a Risk Marker in Non-Diabetic and Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease
Rabbani N., Adaikalakoteswari A., Larkin JR., Panagiotopoulos S., MacIsaac RJ., Yue DK., Fulcher GR., Roberts MA., Thomas M., Ekinci E., Thornalley PJ.
Accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) is linked to decline in renal function, particularly in patients with diabetes. Major forms of AGEs in serum are protein-bound AGEs and AGE free adducts. In this study, we assessed levels of AGEs in subjects with and without diabetes, with normal renal function and stages 2 to 4 chronic kidney disease (CKD), to identify which AGE has the greatest progressive change with decline in renal function and change in diabetes. We performed a cross-sectional study of patients with stages 2–4 CKD, with and without diabetes, and healthy controls (n = 135). Nine protein-bound and free adduct AGEs were quantified in serum. Most protein-bound AGEs increased moderately through stages 2–4 CKD whereas AGE free adducts increased markedly. Methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone MG-H1 free adduct was the AGE most responsive to CKD status, increasing 8-fold and 30-fold in stage 4 CKD in patients without and with diabetes, respectively. MG-H1 Glomerular filtration flux was increased 5-fold in diabetes, likely reflecting increased methylglyoxal glycation status. We conclude that serum MG-H1 free adduct concentration was strongly related to stage of CKD and increased in diabetes status. Serum MG-H1 free adduct is a candidate AGE risk marker of non-diabetic and diabetic CKD.