Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Neurofeedback (NF) is a versatile non-invasive neuromodulation technique. In combination with motor imagery (MI), NF has considerable potential for enhancing motor performance or supplementing motor rehabilitation. However, not all users achieve reliable NF control. While research has focused on various brain signal properties and the optimisation of signal processing to solve this issue, the impact of context, i.e. the conditions in which NF motor tasks occur, is comparatively unknown. We review current research on the impact of context on MI NF and related motor domains. We identify long-term factors that act at the level of the individual or of the intervention, and short-term factors, with levels before/after and during a session. The reviewed literature indicates that context plays a significant role. We propose considering context factors as well as within-level and across-level interactions when studying MI NF.

Original publication




Journal article


Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports

Publication Date





90 - 101