Separating Clinical and Subclinical Depression by Big Data Informed Structural Vulnerability Index and Its impact on Cognition: ENIGMA Dot Product.
Kochunov P., Ma Y., Hatch KS., Schmaal L., Jahanshad N., Thompson PM., Adhikari BM., Bruce H., Chiappelli J., Van der Vaart A., Goldwaser EL., Sotiras A., Ma T., Chen S., Nichols TE., Hong LE.
Big Data neuroimaging collaborations including Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) integrated worldwide data to identify regional brain deficits in major depressive disorder (MDD). We evaluated the sensitivity of translating ENIGMA-defined MDD deficit patterns to the individual level. We treated ENIGMA MDD deficit patterns as a vector to gauge the similarity between individual and MDD patterns by calculating ENIGMA dot product (EDP). We analyzed the sensitivity and specificity of EDP in separating subjects with (1) subclinical depressive symptoms without a diagnosis of MDD, (2) single episode MDD, (3) recurrent MDD, and (4) controls free of neuropsychiatric disorders. We compared EDP to the Quantile Regression Index (QRI; a linear alternative to the brain age metric) and the global gray matter thickness and subcortical volumes and fractional anisotropy (FA) of water diffusion. We performed this analysis in a large epidemiological sample of UK Biobank (UKBB) participants (N=17,053/19,265 M/F). Group-average increases in depressive symptoms from controls to recurrent MDD was mirrored by EDP (r2=0.85), followed by FA (r2=0.81) and QRI (r2=0.56). Subjects with MDD showed worse performance on cognitive tests than controls with deficits observed for 3 out of 9 cognitive tests administered by the UKBB. We calculated correlations of EDP and other brain indices with measures of cognitive performance in controls. The correlation pattern between EDP and cognition in controls was similar (r2=0.75) to the pattern of cognitive differences in MDD. This suggests that the elevation in EDP, even in controls, is associated with cognitive performance - specifically in the MDD-affected domains. That specificity was missing for QRI, FA or other brain imaging indices. In summary, translating anatomically informed meta-analytic indices of similarity using a linear vector approach led to better sensitivity to depressive symptoms and cognitive patterns than whole-brain imaging measurements or an index of accelerated aging.